Raphidascaris (Sprentascaris) andersoni n. sp. (Nematoda: Raphidascarididae) collected in the intestine of the humphead cichlid Gymnogeophagus balzanii (Perugia) from the Pantanal wetlands, State of Mato Grosso do Sul (Brazil) is described and genetically characterized. The new species differs from its congeners mainly by having a conspicuous papilla-like formation slightly anterior to the cloacal aperture. Furthermore, males of R. (S.) lanfrediae and R. (S.) mahnerti have caudal alae, and R. (S.) hypostomi and R. (S.) pimelodi lack lateral alae, whereas in the new species caudal alae are absent and lateral alae present. The remaining congeners, namely, R. (S.) marano and R. (S.) saltaensis differ from Raphidascaris (Sprentascaris) andersoni n. sp. mainly because males have three pairs of postcloacal papillae (vs five pairs). In the phylogenetic reconstructions, using three nuclear genetic markers (18S, ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 and 28S rDNA) and one mitochondrial (cox1 mtDNA), the new species was separated from other representatives of Raphidascarididae, and the absence of monophyly in Hysterothylacium and Raphidascaroides was confirmed. Moreover, the subgenera Sprentascaris and Ichthyascaris appeared to be monophyletic. Therefore, even though Raphidascaris (Raphidascaris) was apparently not monophyletic, the subgenera of Raphidascaris should be re-erected as valid genera. The updated diagnoses of Ichthyascaris, Raphidascaris and Sprentascaris are given. The present study represents the first parasitological survey in G. balzanii.