A gram-negative bacillus, SMC-8986T, which was isolated from the purulent exudate of an epidermal cyst but could not be identified by a conventional microbiologic method, was characterized by a variety of phenotypic and genotypic analyses. Sequences of the 16S rRNA gene revealed that this bacterium belongs to the genus Bordetella but diverged distinctly from previously described Bordetella species. Analyses of cellular fatty acid composition and performance of biochemical tests confirmed that this bacterium is distinct from other Bordetella species. Furthermore, the results of comparative sequence analyses of two protein-coding genes (risA and ompA) also showed that this strain represents a new species within the genus Bordetella. Based on the evaluated phenotypic and genotypic characteristics, it is proposed that SMC-8986T should be classified as a new species, namely Bordetella ansorpii sp. nov.