A new species of freshwater crab of the genus Potamonemus Cumberlidge & Clark, 1992 is described from Mount Manengouba Reserve and Bakossi National Park in the tropical rainforests of southwestern Cameroon, Central Africa. Potamonemus man sp. nov. is recognized by characters of the carapace and chelipeds. In addition, a phylogenetic analysis based on partial sequences of three mitochondrial DNA genes (COI, 12S rRNA, and 16S rRNA) that included representatives of all other freshwater crab genera found in Cameroon recovered each of the new species as a distinct lineage. A diagnosis and illustrations of the new species are provided, and it is compared to the other species of Potamonemus . Brief notes are provided on the ecology of the new species and the two other species of Potamonemus . An identification key to the species of Potamonemus is provided. The conservation status of the genus is discussed.