Frontotemporal dementias are neurodegenerative disorders marked by mid-life onset and progressive changes in behavior, decision making, and/or language. In several subtypes of frontotemporal dementia (FTD), damage to regions of the frontal and temporal lobes that occurs early in the disease course critically impairs emotional processing, social cognition, and behavior. To date, there are no curative or disease-modifying treatments for FTD, nor any approved treatments for the loss of empathy, impaired social cognition, and behavior of patients with FTD. A growing body of research suggests that the neuropeptides oxytocin and vasopressin are important mediators of social behavior in humans and other animals. Here, we review the effects of oxytocin and vasopressin on social cognition and behavior and discuss the potential implications for these agents as novel treatments in FTD.