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New and old GFR equations: a European perspective

  • Delanaye, Pierre;
  • Cavalier, Etienne;
  • Pottel, Hans; 3149;
  • Stehle, Thomas;
Publication Date
Aug 31, 2023
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Glomerular filtration rate (GFR) is estimated in clinical practice from equations based on the serum concentration of endogenous biomarkers and demographic data. The 2009 creatinine-based Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration equation (CKD-EPI2009) was recommended worldwide until 2021, when it was recalibrated to remove the African-American race factor. The CKD-EPI2009 and CKD-EPIcr2021 equations overestimate GFR of adults aged 18-30 years, with a strong overestimation in estimated GFR (eGFR) at age 18 years. CKD-EPICr2021 does not perform better than CKD-EPI2009 in US population, overestimating GFR in non-Black subjects, and underestimating it in Black subjects with the same magnitude. CKD-EPICr2021 performed worse than the CKD-EPI2009 in White Europeans, and provides no or limited performance gains in Black European and Black African populations. The European Kidney Function Consortium (EKFC) equation, which incorporates median normal value of serum creatinine in healthy population, overcomes the limitations of the CKD-EPI equations: it provides a continuity of eGFR at the transition between pediatric and adult care, and performs reasonably well in diverse populations, assuming dedicated scaling of serum creatinine (Q) values is used. The new EKFC equation based on cystatin C (EKFCCC) shares the same mathematical construction, namely, it incorporates the median cystatin C value in the general population, which is independent of sex and ethnicity. EKFCCC is therefore a sex-free and race-free equation, which performs better than the CKD-EPI equation based on cystatin C. Despite advances in the field of GFR estimation, no equation is perfectly accurate, and GFR measurement by exogenous tracer clearance is still required in specific populations and/or specific clinical situations. / status: published

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