Fresh meat quality is greatly determined through biochemical changes occurring in the muscle during its conversion to meat. These changes are key to imparting a unique set of characteristics on fresh meat, including its appearance, ability to retain moisture, and texture. Skeletal muscle is an extremely heterogeneous tissue composed of different types of fibers that have distinct contractile and metabolic properties. Fiber type composition determines the overall biochemical and functional properties of the muscle tissue and, subsequently, its quality as fresh meat. Therefore, changing muscle fiber profile in living animals through genetic selection or environmental factors has the potential to modulate fresh meat quality. We provide an overview of the biochemical processes responsible for the development of meat quality attributes and an overall understanding of the strong relationship between muscle fiber profile and meat quality in different meat species.