A new pattern was observed in the electrophoretic survey of the hemoglobin beta chain (Hbb) in Chinese wild mice, Mus musculus. The electrophoretic mobility of the major component of the new Hbb was identical to that of Hbbs on cellulose acetate plate, although it was almost identical to that of Hbbd or Hbbp on acrylamide gel. This suggests that the major component of Chinese Hbb has a unique primary structure. A minor component of the new Hbb was completely different from that of the other three Hbb haplotypes well known. These results indicate that the Hbb-b1 and Hbb-b2 of the new Hbb haplotype, assigned Hbbw1, are unique genes in their molecular structure. So far, Hbbw1 has been observed in northwestern China.