Lamellar refractive surgery has evolved into LASIK, which is a widely performed, versatile procedure with a high patient acceptance. In this chapter, the two main components of LASIK were discussed: flap creation and stromal ablation. In each of these areas, the authors explored current technology and new advances, including the femtosecond laser and wavefront-guided ablations. Expanded indications and therapeutic application of LASIK also have come to the forefront. The treatment of anisomyopic amblyopia in the pediatric population is a prime example and was discussed fully in this chapter. The field of refractive surgery has never been stagnant. Surgeons and scientists continue to explore new modalities to increase safety, to improve results, and to broaden applications that benefit the patient population.