Detection of the characteristic spectrum of pulsating neutron stars can be a powerful tool not only to probe the nuclear equation of state but also to test modifications to general relativity. However, the shift in the oscillation spectrum induced by modified theories of gravity is often small and degenerate with our ignorance of the equation of state. In this Letter, we show that the coupling to additional degrees of freedom present in modified theories of gravity can give rise to new families of modes, with no counterpart in general relativity, which could be sufficiently well resolved in frequency space to allow for clear detection. We present a realization of this idea by performing a thorough study of radial oscillations of neutron stars in massless scalar-tensor theories of gravity. We anticipate astrophysical scenarios where the presence of this class of quasinormal modes could be probed with electromagnetic and gravitational wave measurements.