Affordable, high-throughput DNA sequencing has accelerated the pace of genome assembly over the past decade. Genome assemblies from high-throughput, short-read sequencing, however, are often not as contiguous as the first generation of genome assemblies. Whereas early genome assembly projects were often aided by clone maps or other mapping data, many current assembly projects forego these scaffolding data and only assemble genomes into smaller segments. Recently, new technologies have been invented that allow chromosome-scale assembly at a lower cost and faster speed than traditional methods. Here, we give an overview of the problem of chromosome-scale assembly and traditional methods for tackling this problem. We then review new technologies for chromosome-scale assembly and recent genome projects that used these technologies to create highly contiguous genome assemblies at low cost.