Infection occurring after solid organ transplantation continues to exert a considerable detrimental effect upon patient and allograft survival. While the search for better targeted immunosuppressive regimens continues, we must seek to improve our ability to both diagnose and treat those infections that do occur after transplantation. Viral infections in general, and cytomegalovirus (CMV) infections in particular, represent an area in which substantial progress is being made. Improvement in diagnostic modalities has allowed more rapid and precise identification of CMV infection and disease, and the use of antiviral agents that possess activity against CMV has allowed both prophylaxis and treatment of this frequently life-threatening disease. The prophylactic use of presently available agents in combination and the development of less toxic, more potent anti-CMV agents should serve to further lessen the impact of CMV disease upon the field of solid organ transplantation.