Inflammation and thrombosis are integrated, mutually reinforcing processes, but the interregulatory mechanisms are incompletely defined. Here, we examined the contribution of α-defensins (α-defs), antimicrobial proteins released from activated human neutrophils, on clot formation in vitro and in vivo. Activation of the intrinsic pathway of coagulation stimulates release of α-defs from neutrophils. α-Defs accelerate fibrin polymerization, increase fiber density and branching, incorporate into nascent fibrin clots, and impede fibrinolysis in vitro. Transgenic mice (Def++) expressing human α-Def-1 developed larger, occlusive, neutrophil-rich clots after partial inferior vena cava (IVC) ligation than those that formed in wild-type (WT) mice. IVC thrombi extracted from Def++ mice were composed of a fibrin meshwork that was denser and contained a higher proportion of tightly packed compressed polyhedral erythrocytes than those that developed in WT mice. Def++ mice were resistant to thromboprophylaxis with heparin. Inhibiting activation of the intrinsic pathway of coagulation, bone marrow transplantation from WT mice or provision of colchicine to Def++ mice to inhibit neutrophil degranulation decreased plasma levels of α-defs, caused a phenotypic reversion characterized by smaller thrombi comparable to those formed in WT mice, and restored responsiveness to heparin. These data identify α-defs as a potentially important and tractable link between innate immunity and thrombosis. © 2019 by The American Society of Hematology.