Control of pandemic infection of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) requires some means of developing mucosal immunity against HIV-1 because sexual transmission of the virus occurs mainly through the mucosal tissues. However, there is no evidence as yet that the secretory immunoglobulin A (IgA) antibody induced by immunization with antigens in experimental animals can neutralize HIV-1. We demonstrate here that oral immunization with a new macromolecular peptide antigen and cholera toxin (CT) induces a high titre (1:2") of gut-associated and secretory IgA antibody to HIV-1. Using three different neutralizing assays, we clearly demonstrate that this secretory IgA antibody is able to neutralize HIV-1IIIB, HIV-1SF2 and HIV-1MN. Our new approach may prove to be important in the development of a mucosal vaccine that will provide protection of mucosal surfaces against HIV-1.