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Neuroticism, resilience, and social support: correlates of severe anxiety among hospital workers during the COVID-19 pandemic in Nigeria and Botswana

Authors
  • Olashore, Anthony A.1
  • Akanni, Oluyemi O.2
  • Oderinde, Kehinde O.3
  • 1 University of Botswana, Gaborone, Botswana , Gaborone (Botswana)
  • 2 Clinical Services, Federal Neuro-Psychiatric Hospital, Benin City, Nigeria , Benin City (Nigeria)
  • 3 University of Benin Teaching Hospital, Benin City, Nigeria , Benin City (Nigeria)
Type
Published Article
Journal
BMC Health Services Research
Publisher
Springer (Biomed Central Ltd.)
Publication Date
Jun 01, 2021
Volume
21
Issue
1
Identifiers
DOI: 10.1186/s12913-021-06358-8
Source
Springer Nature
Keywords
License
Green

Abstract

BackgroundThe role of healthcare workers (HCWs) during the COVID-19 pandemic may make them more susceptible to anxiety than the general population. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of anxiety and evaluate the potential effects of resilience, neuroticism, social support, and other sociodemographic factors on anxiety among HCWs from two African countries.MethodsA cross-sectional survey of 373 HCWs was conducted in Botswana and Nigeria, using an anxiety rating scale, neuroticism subscale of Big Five Inventory, Oslo social support scale, and Resilience Scale. Data collection was done between May 1 and September 30, 2020.ResultsThe participants’ mean age (SD) was 38.42 (8.10) years, and 65.1% were females. Forty-nine (13.1%) of the HCWs reported clinical anxiety. In the final model of hierarchical multiple regression, neuroticism (B = 0.51, t = 10.59, p = p < 0.01), resilience (B = 0.34, t = − 7.11, p < 0.01), and social support (B = 0.079, t = − 2.11, p = 0.035) were associated with severe anxiety, after controlling for the significant sociodemographic factors.ConclusionsSevere anxiety exists among HCWs in Africa, although the rate was lower than reported elsewhere. Neuroticism, resilience, and social support may be vital targets for psychological intervention in a pandemic as COVID-19; thus, their roles should be further explored.

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