Recent studies have shown that the hypothalamic neuropeptide 26RFa regulates glucose homeostasis by acting as an incretin, and increasing insulin sensitivity. In this study, we further characterized the role of the 26RFa/GPR103 peptidergic system in the global regulation of glucose homeostasis using a 26RFa receptor antagonist, and also assessed whether a dysfunction of the 26RFa/GPR103 system occurs in obese hyperglycemic mice. Firstly, we demonstrate that administration of the GPR103 antagonist reduces the global glucose-induced incretin effect and insulin sensitivity whereas, conversely, administration of exogenous 26RFa attenuates glucose-induced hyperglycemia. Using a mouse model of high-fat diet-induced obesity and hyperglycemia, we found a loss of the anti-hyperglcemic effect and insulinotropic activity of 26RFa, accompanied with a marked reduction of its insulin-sensitive effect. Interestingly, this resistance to 26RFa is associated with a down-regulation of the 26RFa receptor in the pancreatic islets, and insulin target tissues. Finally, we observed that the production and release kinetics of 26RFa after an oral glucose challenge is profoundly altered in the high-fat mice. Altogether, the present findings support the view that 26RFa is a key regulator of glucose homeostasis whose activity is markedly altered under obese/hyperglycemic conditions.