Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) is caused by opportunistic infection of JC virus which belongs to Papovavirus, and presents with progressive demyelinating lesion in the central nervous system. PML was originally reported as a rare complication of hematologic disorders, but later greatly increased in number in association with acquired immunodeficeincy syndrome (AIDS). Original neuropathological features of PML consist of demyelination lacking inflammatory reaction or necrosis, accompanying oligodendroglial nuclear inclusions in the periphery of demyelination. The lesion is preferentially localized to gray-white junction of the cerebral hemisphere and manifests as characteristic demyelinating lesion, called scallopping. Detection of JC virus is essential for the final diagnosis of PML and is achieved via immunohistochemical detection of JC virus with antibodies raised against their components, ultrastructural demonstration of virions characteristic of JC virus, or detection with in-situ hybridization of the genome of JC virus. JC virus can replicate only in oligodendroglial cells, but astrocytes are frequently infected by the virus. The resume of immunological function through therapeutic intervention develops new pathology in PML, exhibiting severe inflammatory reaction with edema and necrosis. This new pathological feature is called immune reconstruction syndrome and clinically presents with severe progression in symptoms of the central nervous system. Nevertheless, treatment of PML is directed for the elimination of the viruses by host immune system. The modification of the above immune reconstruction syndrome is essential for successful outcome of such therapeutic trial.