Neurons, within the nervous system, are organized in different neural networks through synaptic connections. Two fundamental components are dynamically interacting in these functional units. The first one are the neurons themselves, and far from being simple action potential generators, they are capable of complex electrical integrative properties due to various types, number, distribution and modulation of voltage-gated ionic channels. The second elements are the synapses where a similar complexity and plasticity is found. Identifying both cellular and synaptic intrinsic properties is necessary to understand the links between neural networks behavior and physiological function, and is a useful step towards a better control of neurological diseases.