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Neurological consequences of COVID-19: what have we learned and where do we go from here?

Authors
  • Jarrahi, Abbas1
  • Ahluwalia, Meenakshi2
  • Khodadadi, Hesam2
  • da Silva Lopes Salles, Evila2
  • Kolhe, Ravindra2
  • Hess, David C.2
  • Vale, Fernando1
  • Kumar, Manish3
  • Baban, Babak2
  • Vaibhav, Kumar1
  • Dhandapani, Krishnan M.1
  • 1 Augusta University, 1120 15th Street, Augusta, 30912, Georgia , Augusta (Georgia)
  • 2 Augusta University, Augusta, Georgia , Augusta (Georgia)
  • 3 BLDE (Deemed to be University), Vijayapura, Karnataka, India , Vijayapura (India)
Type
Published Article
Journal
Journal of Neuroinflammation
Publisher
Springer (Biomed Central Ltd.)
Publication Date
Sep 30, 2020
Volume
17
Issue
1
Identifiers
DOI: 10.1186/s12974-020-01957-4
Source
Springer Nature
Keywords
License
Green

Abstract

The coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19) pandemic is an unprecedented worldwide health crisis. COVID-19 is caused by SARS-CoV-2, a highly infectious pathogen that is genetically similar to SARS-CoV. Similar to other recent coronavirus outbreaks, including SARS and MERS, SARS-CoV-2 infected patients typically present with fever, dry cough, fatigue, and lower respiratory system dysfunction, including high rates of pneumonia and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS); however, a rapidly accumulating set of clinical studies revealed atypical symptoms of COVID-19 that involve neurological signs, including headaches, anosmia, nausea, dysgeusia, damage to respiratory centers, and cerebral infarction. These unexpected findings may provide important clues regarding the pathological sequela of SARS-CoV-2 infection. Moreover, no efficacious therapies or vaccines are currently available, complicating the clinical management of COVID-19 patients and emphasizing the public health need for controlled, hypothesis-driven experimental studies to provide a framework for therapeutic development. In this mini-review, we summarize the current body of literature regarding the central nervous system (CNS) effects of SARS-CoV-2 and discuss several potential targets for therapeutic development to reduce neurological consequences in COVID-19 patients.

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