Adipose tissue is a readily available source of adult stem cells with multipotent properties suitable for tissue engineering and regenerative medical applications. Peptide hydrogel is a novel biomaterial which provides three-dimensional microenvironments for a variety of cells for tissue grafting. In this study, adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs) were isolated from rats, seeded into the peptide hydrogel polymer scaffolds and cultured in Neurobasal (NB) media supplemented with B27, basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) and epidermal growth factor (EGF). Ten days after the culture, some cells were expanded into clonal populations in which the expression of both Nestin and Brdu was detected but only Brdu expression was detected in the cells that were not expanded into clonal populations. Our results suggested that ADSCs in peptide hydrogel polymer scaffolds can be induced to differentiate into cells capable of expressing the neuron-associated markers, self-renewal and self-propagation.