In teleost fishes, growth hormone (GH) appears to play an important regulatory role in several, apparently disparate, physiological events, including reproduction, osmotic or ionic regulation, metabolism, growth and development. GH secretion is regulated by hypothalamic neuroendocrine factors that either act directly on the somatotrophic cells in the pituitary gland, or modulate the secretion or activity of other neuroendocrine factors. In addition, the degree of the neuroendocrine influence on GH release is influenced by the nutritional and reproductive state of the fish; moreover, there appear to be marked species differences in some aspects of this neuroendocrine-physiological condition relationship among fish species. Thus, the neuroendocrine control of GH secretion in fishes is complex, and still poorly understood. The neuropeptides, gonadotrophin-releasing hormone, growth hormone-releasing hormone, thyrotrophin-releasing hormone, neuropeptide Y, serotonin and pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide have all been demonstrated to stimulate GH in fish, as has the glutamate agonist, N-methyl-d,l-aspartate. Conversely, somatostatin has a potent inhibitory action on GH release in goldfish and carp, but is less effective in salmon and trout species. This review examines the interactive nature of the neuroendocrine control of GH secretion in fishes, and the manner in which gonadal steroids, directly or indirectly, modulate GH secretion and/or the release, or the activity, of the neuroendocrine factors.