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Neuroendocrine Regulation of Growth Hormone Secretion in Teleost Fishes with Emphasis on the Involvement of Gonadal Sex Steroids

Authors
  • Holloway, A.C.1
  • Leatherland, J.F.1
  • 1 University of Guelph, Department of Biomedical Sciences, Ontario Veterinary College, Guelph, Ontario, N1G 2W1, Canada , Guelph
Type
Published Article
Journal
Reviews in Fish Biology and Fisheries
Publisher
Springer-Verlag
Publication Date
Dec 01, 1998
Volume
8
Issue
4
Pages
409–429
Identifiers
DOI: 10.1023/A:1008824723747
Source
Springer Nature
Keywords
License
Yellow

Abstract

In teleost fishes, growth hormone (GH) appears to play an important regulatory role in several, apparently disparate, physiological events, including reproduction, osmotic or ionic regulation, metabolism, growth and development. GH secretion is regulated by hypothalamic neuroendocrine factors that either act directly on the somatotrophic cells in the pituitary gland, or modulate the secretion or activity of other neuroendocrine factors. In addition, the degree of the neuroendocrine influence on GH release is influenced by the nutritional and reproductive state of the fish; moreover, there appear to be marked species differences in some aspects of this neuroendocrine-physiological condition relationship among fish species. Thus, the neuroendocrine control of GH secretion in fishes is complex, and still poorly understood. The neuropeptides, gonadotrophin-releasing hormone, growth hormone-releasing hormone, thyrotrophin-releasing hormone, neuropeptide Y, serotonin and pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide have all been demonstrated to stimulate GH in fish, as has the glutamate agonist, N-methyl-d,l-aspartate. Conversely, somatostatin has a potent inhibitory action on GH release in goldfish and carp, but is less effective in salmon and trout species. This review examines the interactive nature of the neuroendocrine control of GH secretion in fishes, and the manner in which gonadal steroids, directly or indirectly, modulate GH secretion and/or the release, or the activity, of the neuroendocrine factors.

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