To investigate the neurobehavioral effects of dibutyl phthalate (DBP), an important endocrine disruptor known for reproductive toxicity, on rodent offspring following in utero and lactational exposure, pregnant Wistar rats were treated with DBP (0, 0.037, 0.111, 0.333 and 1% in the diet) from gestation day (GD) 6 to postnatal day (PND) 28, and selected developmental and neurobehavioral parameters of the offspring were measured. There were no significant effects of DBP on body weight gain of the dams during GD 6-20 or on the pups' ages of pinna detachment, incisor eruption or eye opening. Exposure to 1% DBP prolonged gestation period, decreased body weight in both male and female pups, depressed surface righting (PND 7) in male pups, shortened forepaw grip time (PND 10), enhanced spatial learning and reference memory (PND 35) in male pups. Exposure to 0.037% DBP also shortened forepaw grip time (PND 10), but inhibited spatial learning and reference memory in male pups. Sex x treatment effects were found in forepaw grip time (PND 10), spatial learning and reference memory, and the male pups appeared to be more susceptible than the females. However, all levels of DBP exposure did not significantly alter surface righting (PND 4), air righting (PND 16), negative geotaxis (PND 4 or 7), cliff avoidance (PND 7) or open field behavior (PND 28) in either sex. Overall, the dose level of DBP in the present study produced a few adverse effects on the neurobehavioral parameters, and it may alter cognitive abilities of the male rodent.