Recent studies have shown that exposure to fluoxetine treatment induces excessive production of ROS, and alters the antioxidant defense system in various tissues and cell types, mainly the liver. When fluoxetine is administered intraperitoneally, the drug rapidly reaches high concentrations in the liver, has potentially multiple toxic effects on energy metabolism in rat liver mitochondria. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of pharmacological treatment with fluoxetine during critical period for development on the mitochondrial bioenergetics and oxidative stress in liver of rat adult. To perform this study, the rat pups received Fx, or vehicle (Ct) from postnatal day 1 to postnatal day 21 (ie, during lactation period). We evaluated mitochondrial oxygen consumption, respiratory control ratio, ROS production, mitochondrial swelling by pore opening, oxidative stress biomarkers, and antioxidant defense in liver of rats at 60 days of age. Our studies have shown, that treatment with Fx during the lactation period resulted in reduced body mass gain, improvement of the mitochondrial respiratory capacity, induced higher mitochondrial resistance to calcium ion preventing the mitochondrial permeability transition pore opening, as well as decreased oxidative stress biomarkers, and increased the SH levels and enzymes antioxidant activities (SOD, CAT, GST) in liver of treated rats at 60 days of age. These findings suggest that pharmacological treatment with fluoxetine during critical period of development result in positive changes in liver of rats, as improvement of the mitochondrial bioenergetics and hepatic oxidative metabolism that persist in adulthood. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.