To explore the relationship between availability of different types of retail food stores and consumption of fruit and leafy vegetables. This study is a cross-sectional study. Data were derived from 2032 adults living in the city of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, participating in the longitudinal Pro-Saude Study. Exposure to street markets, fruit and vegetable stores, groceries and markets, unhealthy food outlets, restaurants, and supermarkets within 1600 m buffers was obtained by georeferencing residential addresses. Consumption of fruit and leafy vegetables was assessed via two single questions, categorized as 'yes' (≥4 days/week) and 'no' (<3 days/week). Multiple logistic regression models were used to assess relationships of interest adjusted for surrounding average monthly income, sex, age, education, and family income per capita. Except for supermarkets, the presence of a greater number of retail food stores - irrespective of the type - was associated with higher odds of consumption of fruit and leafy vegetables than with areas with a lower number (e.g. odds ratio = 1.47; 95% confidence interval = 1.13-1.91). The greater availability of several types of retail food stores close to participants' residences was associated with higher consumption of fruit and leafy vegetables in Rio de Janeiro. Copyright © 2020 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.