Freda, Celia E. (University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, Philadelphia), and Seymour S. Cohen. Nature of ribonucleic acid stimulated by streptomycin in the absence of protein synthesis. J. Bacteriol. 92:1680–1688. 1966.—The ribonucleic acid (RNA) synthesized in a thymineless, arginineless, uracil-less Escherichia coli strain 15 in the absence of arginine was characterized by sucrose density gradient centrifugation. About 60% of this RNA had sedimentation rates in the range between 4S and 16S, and the remainder was comprised of the 23S and 16S ribosomal components. On addition of streptomycin for 1 hr in the absence of the amino acid, there was an inhibition of synthesis of material of 4S to 16S, whereas 16S RNA was slightly stimulated. Between 1 and 3 hr after addition of the antibiotic, during the precipitous killing of the bacteria in the arginine-deficient culture, the synthesis of 16S ribosomal RNA was specifically and sharply stimulated.