The National Institutes of Health Consensus Development Conference on Ovarian Cancer-Screening, Treatment, and Follow-up brought together epidemiologists; obstetrician/gynecologists; gynecologic, medical, and radiation oncologists; and the public to address the following questions: (1) What is the current status of screening and prevention in ovarian cancer? (2) What is the appropriate management of early-stage ovarian cancer? (3) What is the appropriate management of advanced epithelial ovarian cancer? (4) What is the appropriate follow-up after primary therapy? and (5) What are the directions for future research? The consensus panel concluded that there is no evidence available as yet that the current screening modalities of CA 125 and transvaginal ultrasonography can be effectively used for widespread screening to reduce mortality from ovarian cancer nor that their use will result in decreased rather than increased morbidity and mortality. They recommended that further prospective research be done to evaluate this very important issue. Women with stage IA grade 1 and most IB grade 1 ovarian cancer do not require postoperative adjuvant therapy. Many remaining stage I patients do require chemotherapy. Subsets of stage I must be fully defined and ideal treatment must be determined. Women with stages II, III, and IV epithelial ovarian cancer (other than low malignant potential tumors) should receive postoperative chemotherapy. Physicians should be encouraged to discuss clinical trial participation with women, and women should be encouraged to participate. All women should have access to accurate and complete information regarding ovarian cancer. Furthermore, there must be no barriers to women's access to qualified specialists, optimal therapy, and protocols. The full text of the consensus panel's statement follows.