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Nasopharyngeal Carriage and Antimicrobial Susceptibility Profile of Staphylococcus aureus among Children under Five Years in Accra

Authors
  • Dayie, Nicholas T. K. D.1
  • Osei, Mary-Magdalene1, 2
  • Opintan, Japheth A.1
  • Tetteh-Quarcoo, Patience B.1
  • Kotey, Fleischer C. N.1, 2
  • Ahenkorah, John3
  • Adutwum-Ofosu, Kevin Kofi3
  • Egyir, Beverly
  • Donkor, Eric S.1
  • 1 (E.S.D.)
  • 2 FleRhoLife Research Consult, P.O. Box TS 853 Accra, Ghana
  • 3 (K.K.A.-O.)
Type
Published Article
Journal
Pathogens
Publisher
MDPI
Publication Date
Jan 29, 2021
Volume
10
Issue
2
Identifiers
DOI: 10.3390/pathogens10020136
PMID: 33572983
PMCID: PMC7912391
Source
PubMed Central
Keywords
License
Green

Abstract

This cross-sectional study investigated the Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) and methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) nasopharyngeal carriage epidemiology in Accra approximately five years post-pneumococcal conjugate vaccines introduction in the country. Archived nasopharyngeal swabs collected from 410 children aged under five years old were bacteriologically cultured. The resultant S. aureus isolates were subjected to antimicrobial susceptibility testing and screening for carriage of the mecA and LukF-PV ( pvl ) genes, following standard procedures. The data obtained were analyzed with Statistical Products and Services Solutions (SPSS) using descriptive statistics and Chi square tests of associations. The isolated bacteria decreased across coagulase-negative Staphylococci (47.3%, n = 194), S. aureus (23.2%, n = 95), Diphtheroids (5.4%, n = 22), Micrococcus species (3.7%, n = 15), Klebsiella pneumoniae (3.2%, n = 13), Moraxella species and Citrobacter species (1.5% each, n = 6), Escherichia coli , Enterobacter species, and Pseudomonas species (0.9% each, n = 2). The MRSA carriage prevalence was 0.49% ( n = 2). Individuals aged 37–48 months recorded the highest proportion of S. aureus carriage (32.6%, 31/95). Resistance of S. aureus to the antibiotics tested were penicillin G (97.9%, n = 93), amoxiclav (20%, n = 19), tetracycline (18.9%, n = 18), erythromycin (5.3%, n = 5), ciprofloxacin (2.1%, n = 2), gentamicin (1.1%, n = 1), cotrimoxazole, clindamycin, linezolid, and teicoplanin (0% each). No inducible clindamycin resistance was observed for the erythromycin-resistant isolates. Three (3.2%) of the isolates were multidrug resistant, of which 66.7% (2/3) were MRSA. The pvl gene was associated with 59.14% (55/93) of the methicillin-sensitive S. aureus (MSSA) isolates, but was not detected among any of the MRSA isolates.

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