Live recombinant bacteria represent an attractive means to induce both mucosal and systemic immune responses against heterologous antigens. Several models have now been developed and shown to be highly efficient following intranasal immunization. In this review, we describe the two main classes of live recombinant bacteria: generally recognized as safe bacteria and attenuated strains derived from pathogenic bacteria. Among the latter, we have differentiated the bacteria, which do not usually colonize the respiratory tract from those that are especially adapted to respiratory tissues. The strategies of expression of the heterologous antigens, the invasiveness and the immunogenicity of the recombinant bacteria are discussed.