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In Vitro and In Vivo Models for the Investigation of Potential Drugs Against Schizophrenia.

Authors
  • Koszła, Oliwia1
  • Targowska-Duda, Katarzyna M2
  • Kędzierska, Ewa3
  • Kaczor, Agnieszka A1, 4
  • 1 Department of Synthesis and Chemical Technology of Pharmaceutical Substances, Faculty of Pharmacy, Medical University of Lublin, 4A Chodźki St., PL-20093 Lublin, Poland. , (Poland)
  • 2 Department of Biopharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Medical University of Lublin, 4A Chodźki St., PL-20093 Lublin, Poland. , (Poland)
  • 3 Department of Pharmacology and Pharmacodynamics, Faculty of Pharmacy, Medical University of Lublin, 4A Chodźki St., PL-20093 Lublin, Poland. , (Poland)
  • 4 School of Pharmacy, University of Eastern Finland, P.O. Box 1627, FI-70211 Kuopio, Finland. , (Finland)
Type
Published Article
Journal
Biomolecules
Publisher
MDPI AG
Publication Date
Jan 19, 2020
Volume
10
Issue
1
Identifiers
DOI: 10.3390/biom10010160
PMID: 31963851
Source
Medline
Keywords
Language
English
License
Unknown

Abstract

Schizophrenia (SZ) is a complex psychiatric disorder characterized by positive, negative, and cognitive symptoms, and is not satisfactorily treated by current antipsychotics. Progress in understanding the basic pathomechanism of the disease has been hampered by the lack of appropriate models. In order to develop modern drugs against SZ, efficient methods to study them in in vitro and in vivo models of this disease are required. In this review a short presentation of current hypotheses and concepts of SZ is followed by a description of current progress in the field of SZ experimental models. A critical discussion of advantages and limitations of in vitro models and pharmacological, genetic, and neurodevelopmental in vivo models for positive, negative, and cognitive symptoms of the disease is provided. In particular, this review concerns the important issue of how cellular and animal systems can help to meet the challenges of modeling the disease, which fully manifests only in humans, as experimental studies of SZ in humans are limited. Next, it is emphasized that novel clinical candidates should be evaluated in animal models for treatment-resistant SZ. In conclusion, the plurality of available in vitro and in vivo models is a consequence of the complex nature of SZ, and there are extensive possibilities for their integration. Future development of more efficient antipsychotics reflecting the pleiotropy of symptoms in SZ requires the incorporation of various models into one uniting model of the multifactorial disorder and use of this model for the evaluation of new drugs.

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