Several in vitro and in vivo experiments have shown that nanostructured materials, which mimic the nanometer topography of the native tissues, improve biocompatible responses, and result in better tissue integration in medical implants. Understanding various aspects of nanotopography is extremely important for better designs of these devices. In this review paper, recent progress in the fabrication, characterization, biological responses, and application of nanostructured materials are discussed. Specifically, materials such as ceramics and polymers used to manufacture nanostructured surfaces are briefly introduced. Techniques for fabrication and characterization of nanostructured materials are also explored. Cellular responses such as morphology, alignment, adhesion, proliferation, and profiles of gene expression of various cell types after their exposure to nanofeatured materials are particularly reviewed. Finally, the paper briefly discusses some application of nanostructured materials including those in biosensor and tissue engineering fields.