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Nanopharmaceuticals and nanomedicines currently on the market: challenges and opportunities.

Authors
  • Farjadian, Fatemeh1
  • Ghasemi, Amir2, 3
  • Gohari, Omid2
  • Roointan, Amir4
  • Karimi, Mahdi5, 6, 7
  • Hamblin, Michael R7, 8, 9
  • 1 Pharmaceutical Sciences Research Center, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz 71468-64685, Iran. , (Iran)
  • 2 Department of Materials Science & Engineering, Sharif University of Technology, Tehran 11365-9466, Iran. , (Iran)
  • 3 Advances Nanobiotechnology & Nanomedicine Research Group (ANNRG), Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran 14496-4535, Iran. , (Iran)
  • 4 Department of Medical Biotechnology, School of Advanced Medical Sciences & Technologies, Shiraz University of Medical Science, Shiraz 71348-14336, Iran. , (Iran)
  • 5 Cellular & Molecular Research Center, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran 14496-14535, Iran. , (Iran)
  • 6 Department of Medical Nanotechnology, Faculty of Advanced Technologies in Medicine, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran 14496-14535, Iran. , (Iran)
  • 7 Wellman Center for Photomedicine, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02114, USA.
  • 8 Department of Dermatology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, USA.
  • 9 Harvard - MIT Division of Health Sciences & Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139, USA.
Type
Published Article
Journal
Nanomedicine
Publisher
Future Medicine
Publication Date
Jan 01, 2019
Volume
14
Issue
1
Pages
93–126
Identifiers
DOI: 10.2217/nnm-2018-0120
PMID: 30451076
Source
Medline
Keywords
Language
English
License
Unknown

Abstract

There has been a revolution in nanotechnology and nanomedicine. Since 1980, there has been a remarkable increase in approved nano-based pharmaceutical products. These novel nano-based systems can either be therapeutic agents themselves, or else act as vehicles to carry different active pharmaceutical agents into specific parts of the body. Currently marketed nanostructures include nanocrystals, liposomes and lipid nanoparticles, PEGylated polymeric nanodrugs, other polymers, protein-based nanoparticles and metal-based nanoparticles. A range of issues must be addressed in the development of these nanostructures. Ethics, market size, possibility of market failure, costs and commercial development, are some topics which are on the table to be discussed. After passing all the ethical and biological assessments, and satisfying the investors as to future profitability, only a handful of these nanoformulations, successfully obtained marketing approval. We survey the range of nanomedicines that have received regulatory approval and are marketed. We discuss ethics, costs, commercial development and possible market failure. We estimate the global nanomedicine market size and future growth. Our goal is to summarize the different approved nanoformulations on the market, and briefly cover the challenges and future outlook.

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