Mono ADP-ribosyltransferase 2 (ART2) is an ectoenzyme expressed on mouse T lymphocytes, which catalyze the transfer of ADP-ribose groups from NAD(+) onto several target proteins. In vitro, ADP-ribosylation by ART2 activates the P2X7 ATP receptor and is responsible for NAD(+)-induced T cell death (NICD). Yet, the origin of extracellular NAD(+) and the role of NICD in vivo remain elusive. In a model of acute inflammation induced by polyacrylamide beads, we demonstrate release of NAD(+) into exudates during the early phase of the inflammatory response. This leads to T cell depletion in the draining lymph nodes from wild-type and, more severely, from mice lacking the CD38 NAD(+) glycohydrolase, whereas no effect is observed in ART2-deficient animals. Intravenous injection of NAD(+) used to exacerbate NICD in vivo results in fast and dramatic ART2- and P2X7-dependent depletion of CD4+ and CD8+ T lymphocytes, which can affect up to 80% of peripheral T cells in CD38(-/-) mice. This affects mainly naive T cells as most cells surviving in vivo NAD+ treatment exhibit the phenotype of recently activated/memory cells. Consistently, treatment with NAD(+) abolishes primary Ab response to a T-dependent Ag in NICD-susceptible CD38(-/-) mice but has no effect on the secondary response when given several days after priming. Unexpectedly NAD+ treatment improves the response in their wild-type BALB/c counterparts. We propose that NAD(+) released during early inflammation facilitates the expansion of primed T cells, through ART2-driven death of resting cells, thus contributing to the dynamic regulation of T cell homeostasis.