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Na+/H+-exchanger-1 inhibition counteracts diabetic cataract formation and retinal oxidative-nitrative stress and apoptosis.

Authors
  • Lupachyk, Sergey1
  • Stavniichuk, Roman
  • Komissarenko, Julia I
  • Drel, Viktor R
  • Obrosov, Alexander A
  • El-Remessy, Azza B
  • Pacher, Pal
  • Obrosova, Irina G
  • 1 Pennington Biomedical Research Center, Louisiana State University System, Baton Rouge, LA 70808, USA.
Type
Published Article
Journal
International Journal of Molecular Medicine
Publisher
Spandidos Publications
Publication Date
June 2012
Volume
29
Issue
6
Pages
989–998
Identifiers
DOI: 10.3892/ijmm.2012.933
PMID: 22407349
Source
Medline
License
Unknown

Abstract

The Na⁺-H⁺-exchanger-1 (NHE-1) controls intracellular pH and glycolytic enzyme activities, and its expression and activity are increased by diabetes and high glucose. NHE-1-dependent upregulation of the upper part of glycolysis, under conditions of inhibition (lens) or insufficient activation (retina) of glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase, underlies diversion of the excessive glycolytic flux towards several pathways contributing to oxidative stress, a causative factor in diabetic cataractogenesis and retinopathy. This study evaluated the role for NHE-1 in diabetic cataract formation and retinal oxidative stress and apoptosis. Control and streptozotocin-diabetic rats were maintained with or without treatment with the NHE-1 inhibitor cariporide (Sanofi-Aventis, 10 mgkg-1d-1) for 3.5 months. In in vitro studies, bovine retinal pericytes and endothelial cells were cultured in 5 or 30 mM glucose, with or without 10 µM cariporide, for 7 days. A several-fold increase of the by-product of glycolysis, α-glycerophosphate, indicative of activation of the upper part of glycolysis, was present in both rat lens and retina at an early (1-month) stage of streptozotocin-diabetes. Cariporide did not affect diabetic hyperglycemia and counteracted lens oxidative-nitrative stress and p38 MAPK activation, without affecting glucose or sorbitol pathway intermediate accumulation. Cataract formation (indirect ophthalmoscopy and slit-lamp examination) was delayed, but not prevented. The number of TUNEL-positive cells per flat-mounted retina was increased 4.4-fold in diabetic rats (101 ± 17 vs. 23 ± 8 in controls , P<0.01), and this increase was attenuated by cariporide (45 ± 12, P<0.01). Nitrotyrosine and poly(ADP-ribose) fluorescence and percentage of TUNEL-positive cells were increased in pericytes and endothelial cells cultured in 30 mM glucose, and these changes were at least partially prevented by cariporide. In conclusion, NHE-1 contributes to diabetic cataract formation, and retinal oxidative-nitrative stress and apoptosis. The findings identify a new therapeutic target for diabetic ocular complications.

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