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N-formyl peptide receptor 3 (FPR3) departs from the homologous FPR2/ALX receptor with regard to the major processes governing chemoattractant receptor regulation, expression at the cell surface, and phosphorylation.

Authors
Type
Published Article
Journal
Journal of Biological Chemistry
1083-351X
Publisher
American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
Publication Date
Volume
286
Issue
30
Pages
26718–26731
Identifiers
DOI: 10.1074/jbc.M111.244590
PMID: 21543323
Source
Medline
License
Unknown

Abstract

Among human N-formyl peptide chemoattractant receptors, FPR2/ALX and FPR3 share the highest degree of amino acid identity (83%), and trigger similar cell responses upon ligand binding. Although FPR2/ALX is a promiscuous receptor, FPR3 has only one specific high affinity ligand, F2L, and a more restricted tissue/cell distribution. In this study, we showed that FPR2/ALX behaved as the prototypical receptor FPR1. The agonist-dependent phosphorylation used a hierarchical mechanism with a prominent role of Ser(329), Thr(332), and Thr(335). Phosphorylation of FPR2/ALX was essential for its desensitization but the lack of phosphorylation did not result in enhanced or sustained responses. In contrast, resting FPR3 displayed a marked level of phosphorylation, which was only slightly increased upon agonist stimulation. Another noticeable difference between the two receptors was their subcellular distribution in unstimulated cells. Although FPR2/ALX was evenly distributed at the plasma membrane FPR3 was localized in small intracellular vesicles. By swapping domains between FPR2/ALX and FPR3, we uncovered the determinants involved in the basal phosphorylation of FPR3. Experiments aimed at monitoring receptor-bound antibody uptake showed that the intracellular distribution of FPR3 resulted from a constitutive internalization that was independent of C terminus phosphorylation. Unexpectedly, exchanging residues 1 to 53, which encompass the N-terminal extracellular region and the first transmembrane domain, between FPR2/ALX and FPR3 switched localization of the receptors from the plasma membrane to intracellular vesicles and vice versa. A clathrin-independent, possibly caveolae-dependent, mechanism was involved in FPR3 constitutive internalization. The peculiar behavior of FPR3 most probably serves distinct physiological functions that remain largely unknown.

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