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Mycotoxins in blood and urine of Swedish adolescents-possible associations to food intake and other background characteristics.

Authors
  • Warensjö Lemming, Eva1
  • Montano Montes, Andrea2
  • Schmidt, Jessica3
  • Cramer, Benedikt3
  • Humpf, Hans-Ulrich3
  • Moraeus, Lotta4
  • Olsen, Monica4
  • 1 Risk Benefit Assessment Department, Swedish Food Agency, PO Box 622, 75126, Uppsala, Sweden. [email protected] , (Sweden)
  • 2 Karolinska institute, Institute of Environmental Medicine, Box 210, 171 77, Stockholm, Sweden. , (Sweden)
  • 3 Westfälische Wilhelms-Universität Münster, Institute of Food Chemistry, Corrensstr. 45, 48149, Münster, Germany. , (Germany)
  • 4 Risk Benefit Assessment Department, Swedish Food Agency, PO Box 622, 75126, Uppsala, Sweden. , (Sweden)
Type
Published Article
Journal
Mycotoxin research
Publication Date
May 01, 2020
Volume
36
Issue
2
Pages
193–206
Identifiers
DOI: 10.1007/s12550-019-00381-9
PMID: 31838651
Source
Medline
Keywords
Language
English
License
Unknown

Abstract

The exposure to mycotoxins of Swedish adolescents is currently unknown. The aim of the present study was to investigate the exposure to mycotoxins and their association with food intake, and background characteristics in adolescents of a national dietary survey. About 3000 school students (1000 from the 5th, 8th and 11th school years) were recruited for the survey. The participants completed Web-based questionnaires on food propensity, sociodemography and health, and a Web-based dietary recall. Spot urine and blood samples were collected from 1105 of the participants for mycotoxin biomarker analysis. Mycotoxins were analysed with multibiomarker methods in urine (HPLC-MS/MS) and serum (HPLC-MS/MS). Of the 35 different analytes in urine, the frequency of positive samples were the following: deoxynivalenol (DON, 4.8%), DON-15-β-D-O-glucuronide (DON-15GlcA, 9.1%), dihydro-citrinone (DH-CIT, 0.5%), HT-2-glucuronide (HT-2-3-GlcA, 0.1%) and ochratoxin A (OTA, 0.1%). Of the 27 different analytes in serum, OTA was detected in all samples, while 2'R-ochratoxin A (2'R-OTA) was found in 8.3% and enniatin B (EnB) in 99.2% of the samples. Exposure assessment calculations were performed on OTA from the serum concentration and on DON equivalents (DON eqv) from the urine concentration. All probable daily intake (PDI) estimates were below tolerable daily intakes, except for 1.6% of the participants for DON. The maximum PDI was 4.3 μg DON eqv/kg body weight and day. Consumption of cereal grain commodities was associated with levels of DON, EnB or OTA in biofluids. Serum OTA was also associated with intakes of raisins and coffee. Furthermore, coffee consumption correlated well with 2'R-OTA concentration in serum. In conclusion, exposure to mycotoxins in Swedish adolescents is common, but fortunately, high exposure was rare.

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