Evidence of Mycoplasma hyorhinis infection in human gastric cancer tissues has been found in previous work. In this study, we demonstrate that the expression of p37, a membrane lipoprotein of M. hyorhinis, in mammalian cells induces antisenescence, enhances clonogenicity in soft agar, and co-operates with human epidermal growth factor receptor-related 2 to inhibit cell adhesion. Conversely, truncated p37 protein, with the first 28 amino acids deleted from its N terminal, promotes cell senescence. Taken together, our findings suggest that p37 promotes malignant changes in mammalian cells. With the identification of this molecular component, which is responsible for mycoplasma malignancy-promoting activity, it is possible that a better understanding of the relationship between M. hyorhinis infection and human gastric cancers will lead to novel diagnostics and therapeutics.