3b) was higher in Mg-positive patients than in Mg-negative patients (P = 0.027). No significant correlation was observed between Mg infection status and the grade of intraprostatic inflammation. The detection sensitivity of biopsy specimens was 61% for Mg and 60% for human papillomavirus (HPV)18, indicating possible clinical application of this material. A comprehensive understanding of the correlation between the urogenital microbiome and inflammation would facilitate the development of strategies for PCa prevention. Further studies are required to explore its clinical utility in recommendations of early re-biopsy, close follow-up, and treatment by antibiotics.