An azaserine-resistant derivative of Escherichia coli B/UV, AZA/R1, was found to carry a mutator gene. This gene, designated mutS1, was mapped by means of conjugation and P1kc-mediated transduction. The mutS1 gene was cotransduced with argB at a frequency of 2.4%; the gene order in this region of the chromosome is thy argB mutS1. To determine whether a relationship commonly exists between azaserine resistance and the mutator property, 12 additional azaserine-resistant derivatives of B/UV were developed and tested for the mutator phenotype. None of the twelve was a mutator strain. The level of azaserine resistance was not increased over that of the recipient parent when mutS1 was transduced to an azaserine-susceptible strain. Reversion studies indicated that mutS1 induced adenosine-ribosylthymine to guanosine-cytidine and guanosine-cytidine to adenosine-ribosylthymine transitions. Because such mutational changes are suppressible with deoxynucleosides when induced by base analogues, an attempt was made to suppress the mutator activity of mutS1 by the addition of deoxyribonucleosides to the medium. No suppression was found. Recombinants were prepared containing mutS1 and the Treffers mutator gene of E. coli K-12. The effect of the mutator genes appears to be additive.