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A musculo-skeletal model of rat ankle motion and its experimental test on rat.

Authors
Type
Published Article
Journal
Journal of Biomechanics
0021-9290
Publisher
Elsevier
Publication Date
Volume
40
Issue
4
Pages
891–899
Identifiers
PMID: 16750538
Source
Medline

Abstract

A biomechanical musculo-skeletal model of functional electrical stimulation (FES)-induced rat ankle motion was implemented and tested in rat experiments. The muscle model is a new Hill-based model which includes established physiological relations of force-velocity and force-length-frequency. However, the series-elastic component and the activation component of previous Hill-based models are replaced by a new component which accounts for dynamic time delays and recruitment that occur in real muscle force generation during limb movements. The skeletal model includes gravity and dynamic forces that occur in real rat ankle motions. In computer simulations, various FES patterns were applied to the tibialis anterior (TA) and soleus (SO) model muscles to produce walk-like ankle motions. In lab experiments, the same stimulation patterns were applied by epimysial electrodes implanted in the TA and SO muscles of live rats cordotomized at level T7. The resulting rat motions were recorded by video camera. Video data was converted to ankle angle-vs-time files for comparison with corresponding model angle-vs-time files. Over a physiologically significant range of ankle motions, model parameters were adjustable to yield model motions that agreed with rat motions to within 2 degrees (root mean square differences of rat and model ankle angles). This is shown in plots of model and rat motions presented here for representative cases of FES. The accuracy of our model in reproducing real ankle motions supports the hypothesis that our new muscle model generates correct muscle forces over a useful range of limb motions. It suggests that the model may be useful in the design of FES neural prostheses.

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