Three types of diaphragmatic muscle fibers were identified histochemically in the sternal, costal, and crural regions of the cat diaphragm. Differences in the proportion of each muscle fiber type were observed between the abdominal and thoracic surfaces of the diaphragm but not among the different regions. A higher percentage of slow-twitch oxidative fibers was noted on the abdominal surface, whereas more fast-twitch fibers (fast-twitch oxidative-glycolytic and fast-twitch glycolytic) were found on the thoracic surface. Differences in muscle architecture were observed between diaphragmatic regions, but not between abdominal and thoracic sides. Overall, muscle fibers were longer in the crural regions, with the longest fibers being found in the crossing-band area of the crura. In the costal regions, fibers were longest in the center and became shorter toward the ventral and dorsal extent of these regions. Fiber lengths were similar throughout the sternal region. In each diaphragmatic region, the length of fibers extended from the origin of the muscle to its insertion. We conclude that functional differences between diaphragmatic regions could be attributed to fiber length and/or orientation, but not to differences in fiber-type composition.