ABSTRACT The inadequate agricultural management in the semiarid region of northeastern Brazil, associated with the fragility of most soils, has caused degradation of the quality of this resource. This study aimed to evaluate the quality of Quartzipsamments under different uses through the multivariate analysis of chemical and physical attributes. Five areas were selected: four of them with agricultural use (onion, banana, cassava, and corn) and the other with Caatinga. Soil samples were collected at depths of 0.00–0.10, 0.10–0.20, and 0.20–0.40 m for chemical and physical analyses. The data were submitted to descriptive analysis and then to the multivariate analysis using the principal component analysis (PCA) technique and Ward’s clustering method. PCA and clustering techniques allowed the identification of different production systems in subsurface layers, suggesting the effect of fertility on the differentiation of areas with onion and banana, as well as the clustering of cassava and corn cultivations. Physical attributes and sodium content of the surface layer of the area with onion showed a tendency of compaction and salinization process of this environment. In general, fertility was the main responsible for the improvement of soil quality with agricultural use when compared to the Caatinga.