The catalytic properties of the testis microsomal P-450, termed P-450sccII, have been studied in a refined assay system which consists of P-450sccII (13 nmol of P-450 heme/mg of protein) and its reductase has been purified extensively from pig testis. The results indicated that P-450sccII was highly active in catalyzing hydroxylation of 11 beta-hydroxyprogesterone at the 17 alpha-position to give 21-deoxycortisol and cleavage of 17 alpha-hydroxyprogesterone at the 17-20 bond to give androstenedione with turnover numbers of 25 and 30 mol/min X mol of P-450, respectively. In contrast, many physiologically important corticosteroids we tested were found to be poor substrates for both the hydroxylase and lyase reactions. The possible reason for the importance of these substrate specificity of P-450sccII in production of both corticosteroids and androgens in the endocrine tissues is discussed. P-450sccII also catalyzed conversion of testosterone to androstenedione, but 18O experiments failed to show incorporation of atmospheric oxygen into the androstenedione formed. However, this does not preclude the possibility that the P-450-bound intermediate gem-diol stereoselectively dehydrates to give the nonlabeled ketosteroid. In addition to these steroid-oxidizing activities, P-450sccII revealed considerable specificities toward various xenobiotics, suggesting that P-450sccII and liver microsomal P-450 are basically similar as regards enzymatic functions and activities.