Bladder cancer is the fifth most common cancer in adults. Because of the high recurrence rate (up to 70%) new tumor markers for urine are necessary for monitoring patients. In this study, we investigated the value of M-FISH on cells from urine for the detection of bladder cancer. Urine samples from 141 patients suspicious of bladder cancer were analyzed in this study. Cells were isolated from urine before surgical therapy. For FISH analysis, a commercial kit (UroVysion) containing hybridization probes for chromosomes 3, 7, 9p21 and 17, was used. Twenty-five cells were analyzed in each case by two observers. A FISH result was obtained in 121 cases. Overall, sensitivity was 60% and specificity reached 82.6%. Sensitivity and specificity by cytology were 24.1% and 90.5%, respectively. Analyzing results concerning T-category, sensitivity of FISH and cytology was 36.1% and 15% in pTa, 65.2 and 25.7% in pT1, 100% and 66.7% in pT2-3 tumors, respectively. Concerning tumor grade, similar results were obtained: sensitivity was 37% and 14% in G1, 65.4% and 40% in G2, 91.7% and 50% in G3 tumors, for FISH and cytology, respectively. In conclusion, FISH on cells from urine has been shown in all studies to be highly sensitive and specific for detection of bladder cancer. Sensitivity of FISH is higher than conventional cytology and can be used in routine diagnosis additionally to conventional cytology especially in doubtful or negative cases. FISH can detect recurrence earlier than other methods like cytology, cystoscopy or biopsy histological examination.