Replication protein A (RPA) complex has been shown, using both in vivo and in vitro approaches, to be required for most aspects of eukaryotic DNA metabolism: replication, repair, telomere maintenance and homologous recombination. Here, we review recent data concerning the function and biological importance of the multi-RPA complex. There are distinct complexes of RPA found in the biological kingdoms, although for a long time only one type of RPA complex was believed to be present in eukaryotes. Each complex probably serves a different role. In higher plants, three distinct large and medium subunits are present, but only one species of the smallest subunit. Each of these protein subunits forms stable complexes with their respective partners. They are paralogs as complex. Humans possess two paralogs and one analog of RPA. The multi-RPA system can be regarded as universal in eukaryotes. Among eukaryotic kingdoms, paralogs, orthologs, analogs and heterologs of many DNA synthesis-related factors, including RPA, are ubiquitous. Convergent evolution seems to be ubiquitous in these processes. Using recent findings, we review the composition and biological functions of RPA complexes.