Background and aimsSeveral oncolytic viruses applications have been approved in the clinic or in different phases of clinical trials. However, these methods have some rudimentary problems. Therefore, to enhance the delivery and quality of treatment, considering the advantage of cell carrier-based methods such as Mesenchymal Stem Cells (MSC) have been proposed. This study was designed to evaluate the performance and quality of cancer treatment based on MSCs loaded by oncolytic reovirus in the cancerous C57BL/6 mouse model. Also, we evaluated MSCs migration potency in vitro and in vivo following the oncolytic reovirus infection.MethodsC57BL/6 mice were inoculated with TC-1 cell lines and tumors were established in the right flank. Mice were systemically treated with reovirus, MSCs-loaded with reovirus, MSCs, and PBS as a control in separated groups. Effects of infected AD-MSCs with reovirus on tumor growth and penetration in the tumor site were monitored. All groups of mice were monitored for two months in order to therapeutic and anticancer potential. After treatments, tumor size alteration and apoptosis rate, as well as cytokine release pattern was assessed.ResultsThe results of the current study indicated that the effect of reovirus infection on AD-MSCs is not devastating the migration capacity especially in MOI 1 and 5 while intact cells remain. On the other hand, MSCs play an efficient role as a carrier to deliver oncolytic virus into the tumor site in comparison with systemic administration of reovirus alone. Apoptosis intensity relies on viral titration and passing time. Followed by systemic administration, treatment with oncolytic reovirus-infected AD-MSCs and MSCs alone had shown significant inhibition in tumor growth. Also, treatment by reovirus causes an increase in IFN-γ secretion.ConclusionThe results of in vitro and in vivo study confirmed the tumor-homing properties of infected AD-MSCs and the significant antitumor activity of this platform. Hence, our results showed that the cell carrier strategy using oncolytic reovirus-loaded AD-MSCs enhanced virus delivery, infiltration, and antitumor activity can be effectively applied in most cancers.