While the majority of myasthenia gravis patients express antibodies targeting the acetylcholine receptor, the second most common cohort instead displays autoantibodies against muscle-specific kinase (MuSK). MuSK is a transmembrane tyrosine kinase found in the postsynaptic membrane of the neuromuscular junction. During development, MuSK serves as a signaling hub, coordinating the alignment of the pre- and postsynaptic components of the synapse. Adult mice that received repeated daily injections of IgG from anti-MuSK+ myasthenia gravis patients developed muscle weakness, associated with neuromuscular transmission failure. MuSK autoantibodies are predominantly of the IgG4 type. They suppress the kinase activity of MuSK and the phosphorylation of target proteins in the postsynaptic membrane. Loss of postsynaptic acetylcholine receptors is the primary cause of neuromuscular transmission failure. MuSK autoantibodies also disrupt the capacity of the motor nerve terminal to adaptively increase acetylcholine release in response to the reduced postsynaptic responsiveness to acetylcholine. The passive IgG transfer model of MuSK myasthenia gravis has been used to test candidate treatments. Pyridostigmine, a first-line cholinesterase inhibitor drug, exacerbated the disease process, while 3,4-diaminopyridine and albuterol were found to be beneficial in this mouse model.