As their name implies, matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are thought to be responsible for the turnover of connective tissue proteins, a function that is indeed performed by some family members. However, matrix degradation is possibly not the predominant function of these enzymes. Several studies have demonstrated that MMPs also act on a variety of non-matrix extracellular proteins, such as cytokines, chemokines, receptors, junctional proteins, and antimicrobial peptides, to mediate a wide range of biological processes, such as repair, immunity, and angiogenesis. Our understanding of the many, diverse and, at times, unexpected functions of MMPs largely arose from the use of gene-targeted mice. In this chapter, we discuss the phenotypes of some MMP-deficient and TIMP-null mice and strategies and pitfalls in targeted mutagenesis.