This study was conducted to make a new mouse model of neuropathic pain due to injury to a branch of the sciatic nerve. One of three branches (sural, tibial, and common peroneal nerves) of the sciatic nerve was tightly ligated, and mechanical and cool stimuli were applied to the medial part (tibial and common peroneal nerve territories) of the plantar skin. The three types of nerve injuries produced behavioral mechanical hypersensitivities, and the extent of the hypersensitivities after sural and tibial nerve ligation was larger than that of common peroneal nerve ligation. Sural nerve ligation did not affect motor function of the affected hind paw, but tibial and common peroneal nerve ligation produced motor dysfunction. These results suggest that the ligation of the sural nerve is the most suitable for behavioral study. Sural nerve ligation induced behavioral hypersensitivities to mechanical and cool stimuli, which were almost completely inhibited by gabapentin (30 mg/kg). Sural nerve ligation increased spontaneous activity and responses of the wide-dynamic range neurons in the lumbar dorsal horn, which were also almost completely inhibited by gabapentin (30 mg/kg). Sural nerve ligation provides a new mouse model of neuropathic pain, which is easy to prepare and sensitive to gabapentin.