We have determined the full protein kinase (PK) complement (kinome) of mouse. This set of 540 genes includes many novel kinases and corrections or extensions to >150 published sequences. The mouse has orthologs for 510 of the 518 human PKs. Nonorthologous kinases arise only by retrotransposition and gene decay. Orthologous kinase pairs vary in sequence conservation along their length, creating a map of functionally important regions for every kinase pair. Many species-specific sequence inserts exist and are frequently alternatively spliced, allowing for the creation of evolutionary lineage-specific functions. Ninety-seven kinase pseudogenes were found, all distinct from the 107 human kinase pseudogenes. Chromosomal mapping links 163 kinases to mutant phenotypes and unlocks the use of mouse genetics to determine functions of orthologous human kinases.