Earlier studies from this department have demonstrated that neurones of the V-th nerve motor nucleus (NVmt) have oligosynaptic, inhibitory output to the inspiratory motoneurone themselves under the influence of a polysynaptic input from vagal afferents. To check the hypothesis that NVmt is a part of the pneumotaxic mechanism, we studied the effects of pharmacological microblockade of the NVmt on Breuer-Hering reflexes in halothane-anesthetized, paralyzed and artificially ventilated rabbits. Activities of NVmt neurones and phrenic nerve firing were recorded. Acid-base balance was controlled and histologic examinations were routinely performed. Expiratory activities were regulatory found in NVmt. Its blockade elicited a typical apneustic breathing. During the blockade the Breuer-Hering reflexes gave "paradoxical" effects: an increase in central respiratory frequency following inflation, inspiratory apneusis in response to deflation. We conclude that the NVmt is an important component of the pneumotaxic mechanism or even the anatomical substrate of the pneumotaxic "centre".