Motor adaptation maintains movement accuracy over the lifetime. Saccadic eye movements have been used successfully to study the mechanisms and neural basis of adaptation. Using behaviorally irrelevant targets, it has been shown that saccade adaptation is driven by errors only in a brief temporal interval after movement completion. However, under natural conditions, eye movements are used to extract information from behaviorally relevant objects and to guide actions manipulating these objects. In this case, the action outcome often becomes apparent only long after movement completion, outside the supposed temporal window of error evaluation. Here, we show that saccade adaptation can be driven by error signals long after the movement when using behaviorally relevant targets. Adaptation occurred when a task-relevant target appeared two seconds after the saccade, or when a retro-cue indicated which of two targets, stored in visual working memory, was task-relevant. Our results emphasize the important role of visual working memory for optimal movement control.